Jamaican Family Search Genealogy Research Library


Jamaica: Description of the Principal Persons there


The following interesting letter has been transcribed by Mr. N. Darnell Davis from the Records at Fulham Palace. It was written to the Bishop of London by the Rev. William May, Rector of Kingston, whose will see in Vol. I., p. 261:-
My Lord.
This may serve in some measure to make an estimate of this people from the
other Relations.
There is not six families who are well descended as gentlemen on the whole Island. The original character Your Lordship has in Sir Richard Baker's Chronicle & Patrem sequiter sua proles. And as for those Englishmen that came as mechanics hither, very young, and have now acquired good Estates in Sugar Plantations and Indigo, etc., of course they know no better than what maxims they learn in the Country. To be now short & plain, Your Lordship will see that they have no maxims of Church or State but what are absolutely anarchical.
There is a mystery I'm sure which yourself, My Lord, & our ministers are puzzled to unfold, to see the printed Votes, scolding like Billingsgates, as if our Governor and Council were on the right side, that is to say, ready for the true, maxims of our Constitution, and the Assembly, assuming more than our House of Commons pretend. I doubt not but your estated Creolians tell you that this is only the effect of the two Parties, Whiggs and Torys as we have at home, and that the Governor & Council moderate between them by the right maxims of our Constitution. But, Your Lordship cannot but see how it would be to kick against the pricks, to attempt to have not only a single Act of Parliament, but a Cumulative Law (of which my Lawyer, sub rosa, assures me, there are no less than 25, all relating to one another) put in execution, though the fact is notorious.
Accordingly, any pragmatic fellow; an Officer or Justice, when he thinks fit, will go out of our churches before sermon is ended, to disturb our Congregation, contrary to the same statute, tho' the Penalty for the Laymen is, for the first fault 65 pounds sterling. This can be no wonder if Your Lordship consider that our estated men now are all like Jonah's gourd, and novi homines.
The Governor* himself was Apprentice to one Rabey in Spanish Town, who sold locks, & nails, pots, frying-pans, bills, axes, hinges, hammers, &c., and, there are people alive now, who remember that he went barefooted, & bare leg'd, with shoos on, as 'was the custom for most young shop-keepers & planters in those dayes.
The famous Peter Beckford** his Father came with 2 or 3 Negroes on the Island, a small time after it was taken, &. being a hunter, he & his Negroes catch'd horses and sold them again, for some years, by which he made a beginning of his fortune here.
The great Colonel Gale*** his father was a horse-catcher, for all his prodigious Estate, and he is nevertheless as illiterate as his Father was.
When the Spaniards were driven out of the Island, they left great flocks of cattle, sheep, & horses, which they had lodged in the woods when the Invasion began. This afforded an occasion to a good many of those, who are now prouder than our Dukes & Marquesses, to so make a Livelihood of & to lay the foundation of the Estates th ey now enjoy.
There are three Creolians in England who have had English Education, & make a figure at London with their Estates in this country: Mr Langley, Mr Low, & Mr Dawkins. The Fathers of two of them were but mean men. Mr Dawkins'*#* Father was an overseer here first. The Father of Mr Low*^*j (called Colonel Low) was, as I have heard, some of such imployment as a Porter in Leadenhall Street, but he set up here as a Surgeon. Mr Langley's*+* Father was a Turkey Merchant who had misfortunes in his business, but came over here with a considerable stock, was a man of good education, a good man & man of honour.
In our Council now, I shall shew you that tho' they be all estated men, & of the greatest, yet are they all of the same original. Mr Bernard's Father was a man of Education, and had some creditable beginning. The two Moores' Father was an illiterate, poor, but honest man, who came hither from Barbadoes. & began
* Governor Sir Nicholas Lawes wrote in his will in 1730 that he was "born in 165(2)* (*in the copy of the Add. MS. There is a blot over the "2") of honest & loyal parents who suffered for their loyalty to the Royal Family in the late Grand Rebellion." His mother brought him to Jamaica in 1663, and he resided there fifty-four years. His family appears to have been settled in or near Compton Chamberlain, co. Wilts.
** Major Peter Beckford, Sir Thomas Lynch's nephew, bred a seaman, now a merchant, Captain of the forts; singularly fit, having some knowledge of gunnery, & being very active, honest & sober." A list of the fittest men in Jamaica to be Councillors. 1684t, Feb. 25. ("Colon. Cal.," 590.)
In 1659 Captain Richard Beckford of London was trading at Jamaica. In 1668 Pepys wrote that Capt. Beckford had presented him with a noble silver warming pan. In 1670 it was stated that Alderman Beckford (later Sir Thornas Beckford) derived £2000 a year from his plantation in Jamaica. His nephew Peter, bapt. at St. James, Clerkenwell, in 1643, Lieut.-Governor, died 1710, aged 66, M.I. in St. Catherine. The family seems to have included several prominent citizens of London, of whom the cadets doubtless migrated to Jamaica.
*** Col. Jonathan Gale of St. Elizabeth, died 1727. His father, also Jonathan, patented 533 acres in 1673.
*#* Henry Dakins, Sen., esq., of St. Andrews, died 1683, aged 43, and was of an ancient family in Warwickshire. Col. Richard Dawkins of Clarendon, of a Leicestershire family, died about 1698, and owing to the names being somewhat similar there has been confusion in their pedigrees.
*^* Hon. Col. Henry Lowe, d. 1714 (Archer, 55).
*+* Langley. Fulke Rose mar. 1678 Elizabeth Langley, who remar. Sir Hans Sloane. She and her sister Jane, who mar. Anthony Swymmer of Jamaica, were daus. of John Langley of St. Peter's, Cornhill, Alderman of London, by Elizabeth, dau. and coheir of Richard Middleton, Alderman of London.
Major Andrew Langley of Jamaica. J.P. 1687, and Member of Assembly 1688, whose estate the Swymmers inherited, was their brother. Their pedigree was entered in the Visitation of London. See Howard's "Misc. Gen. et Her.," 2nd series, iii., 170.
meanly, but had success. These two Brothers, John and Samuel,* Councillors, have been some small time at Oxford University, are Masters in Musick, well bred, and have a competent smack of the belles lettres. They are verv civil to clergymen, and all men, and have morals enough which would have qualified them for the highest character of Gentlemen in the Augustan age of Rome. But as to their Christian Religion, no man here can say what they are, for they don't hardly come to church at all. Samuel has been in his Parish Church but once in five years. They outwardly, with Dr. Hoy, profess to be strenuous for Mr. Whiston's new Vampt Arrian principles, while they caress the formerly mentioned Mr. Fry, & have now taken him home to the house of Samuel, for a constant companion, if not for something else. But, they are rigid for the anarchical principles of the country. John goes now for England, & I know, has sense _enough to hide these matters when there, & deny them if asked about them; and, so will they all, except when the country men get together, for certainly, no noble Englishman can be more zealous for our excellent constitution than they are for the present condition of this unhappy Island.
He called Colonel Rose** is a cooper by trade, and wrought with his apron for dayly hire since he came here. He is no immoral man, but you may imagine whether fitted to be a tool to the others who are men of parts, such as the two Moores, and Mr Bernard who is a Lawyer. This man appears to be for the true maxims of our English Constitution, if you'll judge, my Lord, by the Governor's speeches, & the Council's proceedings with the Assembly. For all these discourses and arguments are his composition; and yet, for all this, he is as much for the anarchical principles of the country, when out of the Council, as Peter Beckford, who wears no mask, and is the God of the Criolians; for, he is equal in parts and learning to Mr Bernard, & having so many sugar-works & vast territories in Land, the country Natives believe that for the good of his children, 'tis impossible for him to do anything but what is the true interest of the country. And no men are greater than they. And, as for the Chief Justice, who is the second man in Peter's Party, Mr Bernard and he are hand & glove.
Another of our Councillors is called Colonel Gomersel,*** bred a Faetor here, is a fair moral man. His Father was a waterman who plyed between Passage Fort and Kingstone Village, &c.
He called Colonel Archpold,*#* the Councillor, his Father was a mean man, after the taking of the Island, but a small Planter, and relations (?) to the neighbours who came to settle after him, to whom Colonel D'Oyly (then Governor) used to give many a dram of his bottle, which was a good lusty cane he imployed upon complaints made. He was wont to send for him in a morning and hear both parties, and then called for his Dram Bottle to treat him with. He and his brother Henry are civil, well-bred men, but no one can tell their Religion.
There are many more great estated men on the Island, but these, excepting one or two more, are the men who have a Notion of our Constitution, and who have found out the way to blind you at home with these sham-fights, & in all probability will continue to govern the Island, and hand down their anarchical principles to their Posterity; for, it is no matter whether the Hamiltonians (so called), or the Beckfordians be at the uppermost spoke of the wheel, these principles will and must continue, unless God should bless our Ministry to take some pains to be informed of these matters.
* John Moore, sou of Joh. of Newington Green, Midd., gent., Wadham College, matriculated 13 May 1700, aged 19.
Samuel Moore, son of John of London, esq., Wadham College., matriculated. 28 March 1702, aged 17; student of Inner Temple, 1703 (his father of Jamaica.) (Foster.)
** Capt. Stephen Rose arrived with Venables in 1655. Lieut.-Col. William Rose was father of Dr. Fulk Rose, who died 1694, and of Major Francis Rose, Speaker 1702, who died 1720, aged 66. Thomas Rose of St. Catherine, who died 1724, was a nephew of Charles Price.
*** Ezekiel G., a Colonel and Member of Council, died 1734, aged 70. (M.I. Archer, 96.)
*#* See pedigree, II., p. 339. Col. James A., Member of Council, died 1721, and his brother, Col. Henry, in 1709. Who, then, is the present Henry?
Now, whether it may not be destructive to our State to have a generation of subjects bred up so, who have great Estates, and will come over all, or most of them, in times, to live with us, do poyson Englishmen in their principles. This consideration is of much more importance, when your Lordship shall be farther informed of another stratagem for these ends which they have got, which is this. The only Act of this Island for bringing over White Men, whom they are sensible of themselves, to be the only defence of the country, is that called the Deficiency . Act: viz. Every planter for 40 Negroes which he has shall procure from England one white man, i.e., a Britton or Irishman, or pay £13 19s. per annum, which is termed Deficiency Money. They scarcely bring any in respect of what they might do (but pay the Deficiency constantly). If Your Lordship considers that it is a certain truth, which I can demonstrate; and the late Secretary of the Island, Mr Wood, an Englishman, in his Essayes about Trade, and the improvement of this Island, has asserted that there are not on the Island of White persons capable in any manner of bearing Arms, reckoning (according to the vulgar saying) rag, tag, and bobtail, 2500.
Now, what is this number to govern at least 90,000 or 100,000 Negroes. It is manifest that the Spaniards, our Neighbours, when they, by Providence, turn'd their Arms of two Expeditions, at one time one against Pensicola, and 'tother against Providence, had they united them and made the descent on us, we must have been a sacrifice, and an easy prey to them.
Next, if one half of this noble Island is certainly uninhabited, & may be hundreds of years unmanured upon the present maxims, this deserves serious consideration of our Ministry. The Government at present is anarchical, but nearest to any form of Aristocracy. And this seems to be the principal aim of all our great estated men now, to turn it into an Aristocracy in time, and make use of the mentioned signs for this purpose.
Tho' some of the Councillors do make occasional conformity for once in communicating with the church, but never more, others never.
Mr Pennant's* Father had some beginning that was creditable, but left but an ordinary Estate behind him. Now, the son having got the escheat of Cupos the Dutchman, as is related in the pamphlet The Groans of Jamaica, is become a Councillor, & a vehement Propagator of the country principles, Whiston's, and Erastianism.
John Morant,** mentioned Councillor, was brought up a shoemaker, is a moral man. Pretended to be of the Church, but vehement for the country principles; therefore variable, and a fit tool to these mentioned before, for any new emergency, to pull down the Church, &c.
There is our Chief Justice: no man can tell his Religion. He has never qualified himself (& he has held it since my Lord Hamilton's time) by the Act of Parliament. He has risen from a very mean beginning, though himself and brothers have great Estates.
Colonel Heywood,*** lately Governor, Mammon is his God, & vehement for the present corrupt principles; and, his son, Jemmy, another colonel, and mot wicked debauchee, his Heir.
Mr. Beckford's brother, Tom, *#* Colonel too, is a Libertine, and of the country principles, & has a great Estate. He has killed his man and so has his Brother Peter, but this makes, neither a bit more Religious. He was a Councillor in Colonel Heywood's time, and his graceless son was Governor of ye Fort at Port Royal, a post worth £500 at least (Libs.) per annum. And so these Estated men govern the Island at this rate. Their brothers, sons, &c., let them be never so
* Capt. Gifford Pennant of Clarendon had a grant of land 1665, and died 1677, leaving a son Edward, Chief Justice 1707, Member of Council 1725, who died 1736, aged 64.
** John Morant, the first settler, died 1683. His son John, Member of Council, died 1723, aged 43.
*** Col. Peter Heywood, Member of Council 1689.
*#* Of Dove Hall, bapt. 1682, of Merton College, Oxford, 1699, k. in 1731.
worthless, are put into all the honble & profitable posts; and, let either My Lord Hamilton's Party, as they are called (for a cloak); or Mr Beckford's have the Council, this is the disposition of the body politlck.
There is another Councillor still: one Mr. Gregory,* a man of some education and parts, but a Libertine, & of ye country principles, tho' by the Minutes of the Assembly, in England you would be apt to think him stanch for our Constitution. His Parents had an obscure beginning here also.
And, as for the late Colonel Peak,** his Father taught poor boyes here at first, as a Schoolmaster; and, when King James was on the Throne, & the Duke of Albemarle was sent over with Father Churchill, to pervert the country by force if not by fair means, this good prebendal Church of England schoolmaster publicly gave God thanks that he had lived to see the time that he durst own his Religion, which was the Popish.
Next, there is now another Councillor, Colonel Sadler, a man bred a factor, and has had some education. Is a man well bred, perfectly civil, & of parts. His Father was another schoolmaster, & a known Papist too. He is an occasional conformist, but, both he and the late Mr Peak (who has left a good Estate) is rigid for the present state of the country principles.
Our Council, viz., His Matie's at home, have thought fit hitherto to grant License to every Planter to run as much land as he thinks he may be able in his life time to manure, & in the mean time to pay one halfpenny pr acre pr annum, which is termed quit Rents. But the end of this is quite perverted. And all the great Sugar-Planting men mentioned, & others have run out ten times as much land as now they are able to manure (paying quit rents). Some have run out 40,000 and 50,000 acres of land, as Peter Beckford and Colonel Gale. Some 15,000, some 10,000, some 8000, some 7000, besides what, with their utmost ability they are able to manure. Must the King's good subjects at home, who are as capable to begin plantations, as their Fathers, and themselves were, be excluded from their Liberty of settling Plantations in this noble Island, for ever, & the King and Nation at home be deprived of so much riches, to make a few upstart Gentlemen Princes? The remainder of the Laud which they have run out is every whit as good as what is already planted. And could these present Planters be ever capable to cultivate one 6th or 7th, or 10th of what they pay quit-rents for, they will have much greater Estates then our greatest Dukes at home; and this Aristocracy, and this accession to our Nobility they must necessarily have at heart. This must be the grand project of our Creolian Politicians, if we may judge of men by their actions. Every Englishman who is not one of them in interest, feels their exorbitances often; which made the late learned Mr Barrow, the Lawyer, often say that this People, innuendo the Jamaicans, ought to be governed with a rod as we do children. And to corroborate their interest & grand project, they have incorporated two Lawyers, men of parts, among them, by marrying them to Sugar Works: Mr Kelby and Mr Melling. These are the present circumstances of the Island, & the test of all Englishmen who are Lovers of our Constitution. Your Lordship's assistance, which has been so advantageous to our Nation, may, by God's Blessing contribute much to change those for the better, which is the hearty prayer of, My Ld,
Your Lordship's most humble Servant.
N.B.-One 10th of the Island is not manured; at least of the good land, besides Woods, and Mountains.
N.B.-All the Planters in the Country are Colonels, Majors, and Capts., for all new Governors turn out whom they please, & makers others; and so our
* Son of Mathew Gregory, Speaker 1704-6, who died 1715; Member of Council 1726, President 1755, and died about 1764.
** See Archer, p. 26, for arms of Peake impaled by Thomas Bernard, whose wife Mary was sister of Fa veil Peake.
Tavern-Keepers, Taylors, Carpenters, Joyners, are infallibly Colonels, Justices of Peace, as soon as they purchase Plantations, & our Printer, in his papers, styles them every man Esqrs, & Lt.-Collols, Honourable, prints Elegies on men who never were communicants with the Church in any part of her communion, & who liv'd & dyed keeping variety of women, as James, a sailor by breeding, but dy'd a rich merchant.
N.B.-The Papists everywhere are caressed, and those who are true Lovers of our Constitution dare not own it, or they must expect no honey in this country, but instead of it gall.



This rare pamphlet was printed in 1714, 8º, pp. 48. The name of the author is not disclosed, but he was a classical scholar, and probably a clergyman. The publisher in his preface states, that after casting his eyes on a collection of letters written by some gentlemen in-Jamaica to their friends in London and printed in 1713, he selected for publication this letter written on 6 Oct. 1712, as containing the most variety of useful matter. It was quoted at largE by Oldmixon in his " British Colonies of America."
The letter gives an account in detail of grievances arising from the extortionate exactions made by the then Governor, Lord Archibald Hamilton, in conjunction with a certain "triumvirate of escheat brokers," Mr. Rigby, Sec. and Provost Marshal Gen., Mr. Brodrick, the Attorney General, and Dr.John Stewart.
Mr. Rigby, the writer states, had some years schooling on the foundation of Eaton College, served as a clerk to an attorney in the Temple, and then resided some years abroad at the Court of St. Germain's.
Returning to England he in 1705 purchased from Mr. Edward Hyde his office of Provost Marshal General of Jamaica and settled in that Island, inducing Col. B ..... r, (? Blair) to be security in a bond of £4000. In Oct. 1706 Governor Handasyd appointed him Clerk of the Council and Dep. Sec., and the following year Mr. Rigby obtained from Mr. Baber the patentee the offices of Secretary, Clerk of Enrolments, and Commissary Gen. of Stores.
Complaints having been made about his arbitrary fees, the Gov. C. and A. passed an Act for regulating them, and it was also enacted that in future the offices of Secretary and Provost Marshal General were never to be held by the same person.
Lord Archibald Campbell, the new Governor, arriving in July 1711, then gave Mr. Rigby a seat in the Council.
Many of the title-deeds of the freeholders having become worn and defaced, or lost in the Earthquake of 1692, the Fire that destroyed Port Royal a second time in 1702, and the Hurricane of Aug. last 1712, it was of great importance that the public records should be in safe custody, yet it was discovered that all deeds enrolled in 1671 and 1672 were missing.
Many plantations had been fraudulently escheated and grants secured to Rigby and his friends. By the Royal Instructions all escheats over £10 in value were to be referred to H. Majesty, but by means of packed juries estates were sworn under that sum.
Nathaniel Herring, Esq., brother-in-law of Peter Beckford, Esq., both Members of Assembly, having purchased a plantation of 510 acres in the parish of Westmorland, the Provost Marshal impanelled such a jury as returned the value to be £1. 2s. 6d., yet Mr. Herring was forced to give a premium of £300 to the Governor for an escheat-patent.
Nicholas Blake, of the parish of St. Elizabeth, a Quaker, obtained from the former Governor, Col. Handasyd, a patent for two parcels of land of 1100 acres in the same parish, dated 19 Jan. 1710-11. Some defect in the title being pretended, he was compelled to pay £300 to the present Gov. in return for a new patent granted in March last.
A small plantation of 52 acres in the parish of St. Elizabeth was valued by the Jury at 2s. 2 1/2d, and yet Mr. John Foster (the son-in-law of the aforementioned Nicholas Blake) paid £50 to the Gov. besides fees and charges.
In like manner five parcels of land of 200 acres in the parish of Westmorland were valued by thc Jury at 8s. 4d., and yet William Dorrel paid 2 or £300 to the Gov. Mr. Taber the Rector of St. Katharine's.
Upon some pretended defect in the title of ...... Jenkins, an old blind man living near Dry River in Clarendon, Dr. John Stuart took out a writ of escheat against him; the jury valued the estate at l2s. 6d., and the doctor obtained a patent thereof. J. S. was born at or near Colrain in Ireland and bred in the West of Scotland. Mr. Rigby obtained a patent for some negroes which were cried out at the Grand Court and escheated in the name of ...... Delamain, tho' in the possession of Mr. James Whitchurch, then in England. By the like trick a freehold of 1000 acres which old Capt. Jones, then at London, had in St Katherines he had very near been nickt out of. A plantation of 900 acres in Westmoreland, late the estate of Dr. Hume, a Scotchman who died in this Island without heirs, valued by the Jury at £1 17s. 6d., was granted to Mrs. Olivia Reid, Mr. Brodrick's Mother-in-law. Mr. Melling the clerk of the patents. Two plantations containing jointly 500 acres in Clarendon and Vere, valued by the jurors at 19s.. 7 1/2d. and £8 6s. 3d., were granted to Mr. Brodrick's countryman and servant John Stafford of Vere, shop-keeper. 20 acres in St. Catherine's valued to the Queen at £5 were granted July last to Richard Stoddard, Esq., one of the Judges of our Grand Court. 30 feet square, late the estate of Mary Gibson, widow, in Port Royal, valued at £9, was granted Jan. last to Robert Snead of the said town, turner. Rigby was a shopkeeper's 2d son in disgrace with his father, and arrived without money until Col. Lowe lent him £50.
Stewart was without even whole shoes to his. feet. Brodrick was in debt by several thousands, bankrupt in reputation and credit, almost disowned even by his own family, and it is greatly wondered at that these three should so suddenly not only jump into chariots but be laying out large sums at interest. Their insolence and tyranny are insupportable.
The estate of Mary Swintee of Port Royal, deceased, having been valued by a jury at £100, and escheated, our Triumvirate intreated the Gov. for a patent to the Naval Officer here, William Norris, Esq., but Mr Mackenzie, the Governor's Sec., refusing to countersign the warrant, which omitted the jury's valuation, the Gov. cancelled it. Mr. M.'s ticket of leave has not yet been signed, though he has given £1000 security. Admiral Walker, Commodore Littleton, and Capt. St. Lo are so much his friends that he will have his passage home in a man-of-war. Other gentlemen who accompanied Lord Arch. Hamilton hither have been equally disappointed of favour and justice, such as Mr. David St. Clair, a younger son of my Lord St. Clair of Scotland; Mr. Robert Paterson, the younger brother of Sir Hugh P., Baronet, and very nearly related to the Gov.; Mr. Richard Dercham, brother of Sir Thomas. D., Baronet (all three volunteers recommended by the Duke of Hamilton); Mr. Robert Douglas, recommended by the Duke of Roxburgh; Mr. Elliot, a young gentleman heir to an estate, recommended by Sir Gilbert Elliot of Stobs, Baronet, and Mr. Baillie, one of the Lords Commissioners for Trade; Patrick St. Clair, Doctor of Physick, and younger son of Sir Robert St. Clair, Baronet; Lieut. John Meheux, recommended by the Duke of Ormond. Mr. Patrick Hamilton, late Sheriff of the city of Cork, happening to have had great misfortunes by losses at sea, came as the Governor's steward, recommended by the Duke of Hamilton and Sir Alex. Cairns, yet was dismissed, as were likewise Mr. John Dupray, a confectioner, and Gundimore, a cook. Gundimore's wife died, and he returned to England 13 months since. John Dupray fell sick, but his countryman, Mr. Lewis Galdy, an eminent Merchant in Port Royal, trusted him with a small stock to set up shop with. Mr. Pat Hamilton fell sick and died, Joseph Marshal, the Governor's Valet d'chambre, predetermined to have been dismissed, his wife fell sick and died. Thomas MacMullen, the Governor's groom, happening to marry a barber's widow, was dismissed. Mr. Robert Paterson returned home in Dec. last, and Mr. Rob. Dowglass in April last. Mr. Gilbert Elliot fell sick and died. . Mr. Rich. Dereham was forced to enter into very mean service up in the mountains. Mr. Mackenzie's son died on 6 Nov.
_last. Mr._William Cockburn, the younger son of one of the Judges in Scotland, is a tool of the Triumvirate. Brodrick had been previously banished from Mont-serrat, where he has a legal title to a plantation, obtained by treacherously supplanting his client.
By an Act of King Charles II. in 1683, it was enacted that any alien settling here and taking the oath should be naturalised, paying only £5. 10s. for a patent. A number of Jews and other foreigners came and settled, and one William Kupius, a native of Holland, purchased a plantation in Clarendon, married the dau. of Col. Bernard Andreas,* and had by her one son and one dau. Upon the death of Wm. Kupius some years since, and of his only son, the estate fell to his only surviving child, Anna Williamina. Bernarda Kupius, an infant, under the guardianship of Col. Andreas, her grandfather. Her mother then marrying Mr. Anthony Swimmer,** Col. Andreas let the estate to him at £300 a year vent, but both her grandfather and mother dying soon after, the infant, then eight or nine years of age, was left under the guardianship of her step-grandmother, the widow and executrix of Col. Andreas. The child being ill, one Mr. Newsam, a chyrurgeon, treated her, but she was removed from Leeward to Spanish Town, and put under the care of Dr John Stewart, remaining a year at Mr. Merick's house. Dr.
* Andreiss died at Lacovia in 1710, aged 70. His dau. Bonella mar. Jos. Hodges. (Archer, 340.)
** Of a Bristol family, with very large plantations. M. of C. and died 23 Jan. 1729-30, leaving Milbrough his widow, evidently a second wife.
Stewart tormented the child with repeated incisions and pronounced her incurable when she was removed by Mrs. Andreas home to Leeward and put under Dr. Page. She then improved for four or five months, but died in Jan. last of a fever. Dr. Stewart similarly maltreated Mr. Mackenzie, when Dr Blair of Kingston stated that the practice was the effect of malice and villainy. Several gentlemen were desirous of giving 4 or £5000 for the Kupius estate, but Mr. Pennent, one of the Assistant Judges of the Grand Court, sent some Spanish arguments to secure the favour of the Governor and Triumvirate. A jury then returned the value at £1456, tho' the estate was underlet at £300, and produced 120 hogsheads of sugar, which at £20 per hhd. makes £2400 a year, and the 120 negroes at £25 per head are worth £3000. William Kupius had several brothers and sisters in Holland. Mr. Brodrick, the Speaker of the Assembly in Oct. 1711. Reference to a sum of £54,830 retained on account of penalties of prize bonds, the duties being only £9043. Col. Richard Lloyd, Mr. Charles Kent, Mr. Rich. Thompson, Mr. Edward James, and Mr. James Knight, late inhabitants of this island. Our present Gov. was bred at sea. Our present Chief Justice* was also bred at sea, lost his frigate on a rock off Port Royal, and settled as a planter. Judge Wm. Careless was a soldier in the Foot Guards, embezzled the week's pay of the company, made his way hither, married a planter's widow, and is now the first of the six assistant judges of the Grand Court. News arrived here that heavy complaints were sent home against Gov. Lowther of Barbados and Govr. Douglas of the Windward Islands, and the latter, under colour of inquiring into the murder of Gov. Parke, was reported to have made £20,000 or more.



The above pamphlet represents only one side of the case, but there is nevertheless a good deal of truth in the statements.
Gov. Walter Douglas was recalled, tried, and sentenced to a fine of £500 and five years' imprisonment. Gov. Rob. Lowther was recalled for maladministration and corruption.
Lord Archibald Hamilton, who was 7th son of the 3rd Duke, was sent prisoner to England, when he published an Answer to the Articles published against him, and Sir Nicholas Lawes, a planter, succeeded him in July 1717. Rigby seems later to have taken sides against Brodrick. (See Oldmixon's "British Colonies of America," ii., 353.)
Edward Rigby, a woollen draper of Paternoster Row, and Factor of the Southsea Co., purchased in 1680 the reversion to lands in Mistley, co. Essex, and on the death of the Earl of Oxford in 1703 entered into possession. His son Richard, the Provost Marshal and Sec. of Jamaica, married in or before 1722 Anne, dau. of John Perry of Antigua, Provost Marshal Gen. of the Leeward Islands, who by his will gave her a portion of £3000. Richard succeeded to Mistley, where he died in 1730, and by his will bequeathed his wife an annuity of £250, besides her joynture of £150 a year, £1500 to each of his two daus., and entailed his lands on his only son Richard. _ This latter became M.P., a Privy Councillor, Master of the Rolls, Paymaster in Ireland, and died at Bath a bachelor in 1788, aged 65.
William Brodrick, 5th son of Sir St. John Brodrick, Knt., of co. Cork, and brother of Alan, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, 1st Viscount Midleton, was appointed Attorney-Gen, of Jamaica in 4, 8, and 11 Will. III. In 1693 he mar. at St. Catherine's, J., Hannah, widow of Thomas Ballard, Jr. She was buried as "Ann" in 1703. Gov. Sir Wm. Beeston wrote 4 Ap. 1695:- "I called Capt. Brodrick from the Assembly and swore him of the Council." Dec. 2. Mr. B., the Attorney-Gen., goes to England in the " Ruby." ("W.I. Cal," pp. 455, 623.) In 1701 he was a M. of C. of Montserrat. In 1707 he mar. Sarah Ivey. "Four of his children were buried 1705-9.
In 1715 he was reinstated as Attorney-Gen. (Bridges, i., 344.) He was appointed one of the Justices of the K. B. in Ireland in 1721, and died leaving an only surviving son Thomas, a Vice-Admiral, born 1705, but not bapt. at St. Cath., according to Roby.
Dr. John Stewart was made a M. of C. in 1716.
* Col. Peter Hey wood, a M. of C. and Chief Justice, was removed from his offices by Gov. Hamilton, and succeeded by Thomas Bernard.

The Church in the W. I.

The records relating to W.I. Clergy are mostly to be found at Fulham Palace in the custody of the Bishop of London, and at 15 Tufton Street, Westminster, the offices of the S.P.G. (Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.) It is with some of the latter that this article is concerned. The series of Letter-books marked "A" consists of twenty-six volumes of contemporary copies of letters received, ranging from 1702 to 1736. Most of the originals of these and many later letter-books were subsequently destroyed by fire. The bulk of the correspondence relates to North America, where the majority of the missionaries were sent, the W.I. being wealthy and more settled not requiring so much assistance.
The "B" series of Letter-books consists of twenty-one thick volumes of original letters received 1701-1786. B. VI. relates to the W.I. and B. VIII. to Barbados. The others belong to North America.
An odd volume labelled "Barbados Journal," 1710-1737, is the minute book belonging to the Committee which had charge of the Society's property derived from Chr. Codrington.
The "Fulham Papers," of which two volumes relate to the W.I., containing original letters 1803-1827, were presented to the Society by a former Bishop of London.
There are numerous other volumes relating to the Society's business, which would take weeks to properly peruse, and there are, I believe, many documents kept in the fireproof strong room. Perhaps some day the records may be calendared.


RECORDS OF THE S.P.G. VOL. I., 1702-1704

Several letters from Bishops and others asking for gifts of books and advances of passage money to clergy going out to the W.I.
1702, Sep. 19. Mr. Richard King at Exon to the Sec. "Sr William Beeston was lately resident at Kensington."
Many letters from clergy after their arrival in the Plantations. The Bishop of London begs the bounty of books for "Mr Arbuthnot late settled in Monserrat one of the Leeward Islands, a good man," and for " Mr Arrowsmith who was, likewise wth me & is desirous of returning to Barbadoes."

VOL. II., 1704-1706.

1705, The Bishop of London recommends Mr Tho. Lloyd for the Bermudas, Mr Throckmorton going to the Leeward Islands, Mr Andrew Auchanleck a missioner to America, Mr Wright chaplain to the Leeward Islands, and Mr Rea going chaplain to Jamaica.

VOL. III., 1706-1707.

1706, Oct. 29. Rev. Andrew Auchinleck to the Sec., was destined for Carolina, but owing to the mortality there, is now Minister of St George's Town, Bermuda.
1707, Nov. 27. The Bishop of L. begs books for Mr Cunningham and Mr Thompson, there being very few books in Jamaica.
1707, Dec. 5. Richard Tabor and Thomas Lloyd at Spanish Town to the Sec., have been resident in this Island 10 years, the generality are members of the Church of England, very few dissenters chiefly Quakers, abundance of the Jewish nation freeholders and permitted to have their Synagogue, Six parishes are vacant. On your Commissary's death (Philip Bennett), his curate Mr Todd left Port Royal and is Rector of St. John's vice Mr Garbrand deceased (Thomas Garbrand, son of "Harks" of the isle of Jamaica, Gent., Pembroke College, matriculated 1700, aged 16; B.A. 1704. (Foster).)


FULHAM PAPERS, VOL. II., PART I., 1803-1827.

The letters are all original and grouped under the Islands.
1818, July 10. From William Vaughan Hamilton, Rectory Spanish Town, Jamaica, is Rector of St Catherine's. (Probably son of Andrew Hamilton of St. Kitts, by Hannah Vaughan. He went out to Nevis in 1805 (Fothergill)).
1820, Dec. 8. From Charles Cole, Port Royal Mountains, Jamaica. My wife died on the 1st. Arm. seal. Crest: Seven arrows erect, banded. Arms: Sable; three fleurs-de-lis between two bendlets Argent.
1825, Nov. 1, and 1827, April 30. From George Hibbcrt, 38 Portland Place, relating to Jamaica.
1821, Oct. 8. From Sam. Hinds. Arm.; seal; Crest; A cockatrice out of a coronet.

Morant Bay, Jamaica

This illustration is from a well-executed eighteenth-century (?) water-colour drawing in my possession. The milestone under the tree has on it "xxxi to Kingston." Mr. F. Cundall, F.S.A., has kindly forwarded the following letter about the identification of the view. {The quality of the microfilm of this drawing is poor, and the copy is not included on this site. JFS}
"With regard to your water-colour drawing there is no doubt that it represents a scene in Morant Bay. I have consulted several people on the subject, and a resident writes as follows:-
'The picture, as far as I can make out and after consultation with local authorities -- among them Mr. Bancroft -- must have been taken from behind the residence now occupied by Mr. Bicknell, and known as Church Hill. The church must be the old church at Church Corner, (The church referred to in Lawrence-Archer. (F.C.), although it is not represented as it was. The Johnson River and White River appear in the distance. Mr. Hawkins tells me that the old main road went past Williams' Retirement, and that alterations in the route would account for the position of the milestone. Of course you know that the old town of Morant Bay was at Church Corner, as represented in the picture.'"


From "Additions and Corrections":-
Mr. G. F. Judah writes to Mr. F. Cundall: "I am sorry that the friend who gave you the information that the 'old Town' of Morant Bay was at 'Church Corner' was mistaken. There was never any other town than the present one.
Church Corner is a locality deriving its name from its being the corner which you turn into when you leave Morant Bay to go on the road to the Church."



[The following entries are from Add. MS. 27,968, fo. 52.]



1741 July 23 Oliver Hering.
1764 Dec. 16 Nathaniel Herring, Esq., died Dec. 14th.
1771 Feb. 7 Nathaniel son of Julines & Mary Herring.
1797 Mar. 18 Julines Hering, Senior, Esq.
1813 Mar. 24 Julines Hering, Esq., Colonel of the Westmoreland Regt.


1743 July 16 John Graves and Bathsheba Herring, both of this parish.
1745 Jan. 18 Nathaniel Herring & Katharine Williams, both of this parish.
1752 Apr. 20 Richard Witt .... of the parish of Hanover, Gentleman, & Mary Herring of the parish of Westmoreland, Spinster.


1766 Apr. 1 Anna Maria, dau. of Julines Herring & Mary his wife; born March 1.
1769 Jan. 4 Oliver son of Julines & Mary Hering; born Nov. 4.
1771 Jan. 17 Nathaniel s. of Julines [blank] & Mary his wife; born Jan. 10.



1681 Oct. 4 Julines Herring & Anne Harris in Vere parish.
1793 Apr. 20 Oliver Hering of this Parish, Esq., & Mary Ross of St Mary's, Spinster.



1711 Sep. 16 John Herring and Bridget Earl [?].



1753 Jan. 7 Julines Herring of the Parish of Westmoreland, Esq., & Susannah Quarrell of Hanover parish, Spinster.



1803 Oct. 3 Buried Samuel B. Herring, Esq., Commander of H.M.S. La Missorar [?], Ch. yard.



("Genealogist," New S., x., 108.)

1777 Nov. 27 Colnl Herring was carried away.



92 Robert Mason Lewis son of Sarah Lewis of Jamaica 1750
2500 James son of James Trower of Jamaica. 22 Dec. 1772
* Contributed by Mr. Gerald Fothergill from the lists in the P.R.O.




My great-great-grandfather, Dr. John Nembhard (1711-1777), said to be of Dutch extraction, took out a patent of naturalization as a British subject in Jamaica, bearing date 8 Aug. 1745. In March 1758 he received a grant of land in St. George's parish, Jamaica, and in the patent for this he is described as having "transported himself with his servants and slaves into our said island." I shall be glad if anyone can tell me of any trace of him, or others of his name, having been found in either one of the other slave-owning islands, or in Virginia.

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