National Library of Scotland – MS 17956
Journal of ------- ---------
of Loanhead near Rathven, Banffshire
The name of the
author is not on the manuscript.
However, references in the text lead to other evidence indicating that
the author is Alexander Innes (1792-1875), an officer in the British army.
The first entry in
the Journal is headed –
Gravesend Wednesday 29th October 1823
On Board The Enterprise
Bound for Jamaica
Alexander Innes is
then a Lieutenant of the 42nd Regiment of Foot on half pay.
begins with the arrival of the Enterprise at Port
Royal on 18 December 1823, and ends with Alexander Innes sailing from Port Royal on 26 February 1824
These 24 hours commenced with strong breezes and
cloudy weather. At 6 P.M. saw the Island. At 4 A.M. Morant Point bore N N E. distant two
leagues, it is a large promontory on the east side of the Island. At 10 A M. took a Pilot on board off Port Royal. At 1
P.M. brought up in the Narrows. At 3 PM. I went up to Kingstown in a Canoe with the Captain. –
Distance per log 82 miles
Last by observation 18° – 0' - 30"
by acct –
– 76° - 45
Latt of Cullen Banffshire 57° – 43
Latt of Jamaica 18° –
of Lattitude 39° - 43"
of Cullen Banffshire 2° 51"
of Longitude ––
–– 73°- 5 4"
Friday 19th December 1823
I returned to the Ship at 11 o.Clock this day. At 2 PM. we got under weigh at 3 we dropt
Anchor here. I visited every part of the
Town Yesterday – Kingston is the Capital of
Jamaica, it is situated on the North side of Port Royal Bay. The principal streets are wide, but the
houses only one story high many of them have handsome verandahs. It is a place of immense trade. Ships from all most every part of the world
come here. I was sadly annoyed by moschettoes
last night. –
30 Duke Street Kingston Saturday 20th Dec
I took up my quarters here to day. I found Mr Christy a fine genteel young man,
also his Partner Mr Taylor. They are the
first Merchants in this City. I cannot
as yet say how I shall like the
30 Duke Street Sunday 21st Dec 1823
I rose early this morning and took a long walk into
the interior. I never saw a more
delightful Country in my life. I have
been cautioned against walking so much.
I am told that a European is almost sure of catching Fever by going out
even before the sun gets up, until he become seasoned to the climate.
Street 22nd Dec 1823
I drove last night round Up Park Camp, it is
delightfully situated, but considered extremely unhealthy. I am told the Water about the Camp is
excessively bad. This circumstance
together with its low situation is thought to be the cause of the great
mortality that takes place amongst the Soldiery. The impenetrable Leoganie mountains surround
the Camp they are covered to the top with Copse Wood. I visited the spot where so many of the brave
92nd are buried.
Street 23rd Dec 1823
I confined myself the greater part of this day to the
house. In the Evening I went to the Camp
and saw the 50th Regt. Reviewed by Sir John Kean, in my way home I
drove round the Race Course. – This Town reminds me very much of many of the
Towns I saw in Spain. I was particularly struck with the squalid
sickly look of the European settlers. The
Negroes are a handsome race of people in their persons they are generally tall
and slender, they have a most becoming gait. I was very much astonished when I landed at
seeing them carry every thing on their heads.
I had occasion to employ a Negro Boy to go a message for me, as a reward
I gave him sixpence, he put it on the top of his head and scampered off. I have frequently seen the Females carrying
an empty bottle on their head.
Duke Street Wednesday 24th Dec 1823
I was at a very pleasant party last night at a Mr
Joceline’s I enjoyed myself very much.
The West Indians are exceedingly hospitable, indeed if it was not for
the intolerable heat, I should like the Country. Every thing in this City is exceedingly high
in value. The first night I landed here
I was obliged to go to an Inn (not having
delivered my letters of introduction) I paid 6/8 for my Bed and the same sum
the following morning for my Breakfast.
Mr Taylor has given me the use of his Horse & Gig. I drove as usual this evening round the Camp
and the Race Course. I can not describe
how annoying the Moschettoes are: I can get no sleep from them my legs are
dreadfully swollen from their stings. I
can not forbear scratching. The
Moschetoe is an Insect of the fly kind.
Instead of a mouth, it has a sharp pointed probo cis, or a sort of small
hard and hollow beak with which it pierces the skin, and sucks the blood of animals,
and especially the human kind of which it seems most greedy. I can speak on this subject from sad
Thursday 25th Dec 1823
This being Christmas Day we had a large party at
Dinner. The subject of general
conversation was the disturbed state of the Island, and the disposition to
insurrection the Slaves in many parts of the Island
have exhibited. It was the decided
opinion of all present that something of a very serious nature is in
contemplation amongst the Blacks. This
Town at present has a very warlike appearance.
The Militia being all called out, they parade the Streets every
hour. I can not say that they have much
the gait or look of Soldiers, but they may be very useful. Martial Law is declared. I am informed that I shall have to put on a
Red Coat myself. From my being an
officer in the British Army they can not make me serve here under the rank of
Captain, but as there is no pay whatever attached to the service, if I can I
will decline it.
Farm Penn Friday 26th December
I left Kingston
this morning at 9 o.Clock. I had a most unruly Horse in the Gig so much
so that neither the Black Boy nor myself could manage him until we blind folded
him. The road was delightful and the
country every where teeming with beautiful scenery. This Farm or Penn, as it is called here
belongs to Lord Carrington, but it is at present rented by Mr McInnes and
Messers Christie and Taylor. The stock
of Cattle and Sheep they have got here is immense. Shortly after my arrival I rode to Clifton
the Country seat of Mr John Shand when he resides in the Island, it is a superb
place built entirely in the English style, the pleasure grounds round the house
are very extensive, but sadly kept, this may be accounted for the house being
Raza Mount Saturday 27th Dec
At 3 o.Clock P.M. I reached this place. I left Lord Carrington’s Farm at Gun fire (4
A.M.) I reached Saint Jago de la Vega,
commonly called Spanish
Town at 7 a.m. It is built on the left bank of the Rio Cobra
river in a pleasant valley 16 miles from Kingston,
and tho’ inferior in point of size was once the Capital of Jamaica, it is still
the seat of Government and the place where the Courts of Justice are held. Raza Mount is without any exceptions the most
romantic place I have seen. The house is
built in the Cottage style and has its site half way up a mountain. The sublime grandeur of the lofty Blue Mountains whose aspiring summits seems to invade the
regions of eether, towers in majestic grandeur over the mountain the Cottage is
built on. Luxuriant scenery every where
catches the eye of the traveller. The
cooling breeze from the sea have in some measure cooled the sultriness of the
day before I reached the foot of the mountain; as it is impossible for any
Vehicle to ascend Mr McInnes sent down a horse for me; the view from the house
is of great extent you see nearly the whole Parish of St Thomas in the
Vale. The air here is cool so much so
that Mr McInnes informs me that he burns fires at night. I have been highly amused with the Negroes
since the Christmas Days commenced, they dance the whole day, the only musick
they have is a Drum which is beat by one of themselves, the various attitudes
they put their bodies into when they dance is truly laughable, all of them I
have as yet seen, seem harmless creatures.
On my way here I stopt for an hour at Bybrook a very fine Sugar
Plantation belonging to the late Mr Ross.
I am informed the place is extremely unhealthy, in consequence of the
great body of stagnate water that surrounds the Estate.
Raza Mount Sunday 28th Dec 1823
I took a long ride to day with my worthy host through
the Parish. The more I see of Jamaica the
more I like it. The European Settlers
that I have met with are in general sensible intelligent men, I have not felt
very well this day, but I am resolved not to give way to fear or melancholy. –
Palmer Hut Monday 29th Dec 1823
I arrived here from Raza Mount along with Mr McInnes
at 9 o.Clock P.M. In the evening there
was a large party to Dinner, amongst the number a Doctor Ewart from Greenock a very genteel young man I am to accompany him
tomorrow to Rose Hall. Mr McInnes is
Attorney for all these properties, he is very genteel in his manners and
appearance, far superior to any of the other Planters I have met with, he is
highly respected and has accumulated a very large fortune. I often recommend him to go home to Scotland, but he says the cold there in winter
would kill him, he has been 30 years in Jamaica
Palmer Hut Tuesday 30th Dec 1823
I left this at 5 o.Clock A.M. with Doctor Ewart we
reached Bybrook at 7 a.m. where we breakfasted then proceeded to Rose Hall
distant from Bybrook nine miles where we had an early dinner or what is called
in the Country, second breakfast. After
resting for some time we mounted our horses and rode to the mountains, called
at several Plantations and then returned here to Dinner. Mr McInnes left us in the morning for Kingston, he has brought
us a full account of the revolt amongst the Slaves in the Parish of St
James’s. I strongly suspect it is not
all over. They have taken it into their
heads that the King “(over the Water as
they call George the 4th) has made them free; but that Buckra as
they term White Men wont grant them their liberty. – From what I have seen of
them, they would be the most wretched creatures on the face of the earth if
they were emancipated; they are indolent and lazy, in the extreme. It is very remarkable, that for so many years
past that the Europeans have been toiling to make the Savages of different
parts of the world, conform to their manner of living, that they have not as
yet been able to prevail upon one of them to do so, not even with the
assistance of the Christian religion.
The Moschettoes continue to annoy me dreadfully. I can not rest at night.
Palmer Hut Wednesday 31st Dec
I rode to day over several Sugar Plantations I don’t
see any thing abstruse in the process of carrying on the field operations of a
Sugar Estate. I leave this tomorrow for Belmont I shall remain
there one night then proceed to Colbecks in the Parish of Saint Dorothy’s.
Belmont Thursday 1st Jan 1824
I parted with my good friend Mr McInnes this morning
after Breakfast, he supplied me with a Negro and Mules. At noon I reached Cherry Vale, after resting
until the Island Breeze set in which it general does about 2 P.M. I proposed coming
away, but the Overseer Mr Paterson would not hear of it until after
Dinner. I got an excellent repast from
him, and in the evening he accompanied me half way here the road we took was
thro’ a fine country, but the worst I ever travelled. I was nearly having been tumbled over a
precipice the Mule I rode came down head foremost. On my arrival here Mr McCattie the Overseer
welcomed me in the kindest manner he is a relation of Mr McInnes, and was aware
of my visit. He had a party of Friends
Friday Belmont 2nd Jan – 1824
I am so very ill to day that I am not able to leave my
Bed. I went to a Ball last night and
overheated myself dancing.
Tuesday Belmont 6th Jan 1824
This is the first day I have been able to leave my Bed
since Friday. Dr Moore who attended me
is clearly of opinion, that I had an attack of the Fever of the Country, it is
wonderful that any constitution could have stood the quantity of Calomel he
gave me. I feel almost quite well, but
Wednesday Belmont 7th Jan 1824
This day having been cool, and no sun, I rode to the
Estate of Fullerswood and called upon a Mr Darby who was very attentive to me
during my sickness. I visited his Plantation and returned
here in the evening. I propose if I am
able starting tomorrow for Colbecks Estate in the Parish of St Dorothy’s. I shall ever remember Mr McCattie with
gratitude, he is a man of remarkable for his politeness and affability, and
from whom I received many distinguished marks of kind attention during my sickness.
Colbecks Thursday 8th Jan 1824
I arrived here about an hour ago. The Overseer Mr Spenser seems a good sort of
Fellow. I brought him a letter from Mr
McInnes who is Attorney for the Property, desiring him to give me every
information as to the culture of the Cane, and the process of making sugar. I am to remain here for some months to learn
the Planting business from what I have already seen, I think I could conduct the
Field operations already.
Colbecks Friday 9th Jan 1824
I like this place very much every thing is done to
make me comfortable. There are only
Three White people on the Estate, Mr Spenser Mr Mitchell and myself. The heat is overpowering and the Moschettoes
and other Vermin are troublesome beyond all conception.
Colbecks Saturday 10th Jan 1824
I went to day to the Sugar works belonging to the
Estate, they are situated about a mile from the house, and consist of a Mill
for bruising the Canes, a Boiling House with a Curing House attached, and a
Still House. Masons, Mill Wrights, and
Copper smiths, are busy repairing the Works.
Harvest will commence in four or five days.
Colbecks Sunday 11th Jan 1824
This Estate consists of 5,000 acres and is
romantically situated in a valley. There
are 300 Negroes on the Property, who are quiet well disposed people. On the Breeding Farm there are about 600
cattle of different ages and sex, all of a particular good kind, tho’ inferior
in point of size to the English Cattle, they are of a much more handsome shape,
they are all wild and run in the woods.
For the use of the White people employed on the Property, there are 98
Sheep & 56 Hogs, and Geese, Ducks, Turkeys and all kinds of Fowls in
great abundance. The only drink allowed
on the Estate is Rum, of that we have as much as we like. – I ride to day a
considerable distance into the interior of the Island. It is intersected with a ridge of steep hills
tumbled by the frequent earthquakes in a stupendous manner upon one
another. These hills tho’ containing no
soil on their surface, are covered with a great variety of beautiful trees
flourishing in perpetual spring. They
are nourished by the rains which often fall, or the mists which continually
brood on the mountains. From the rocks
issue a vast number of small rivers of pure wholesome water which tumble down
in Cataracts, and together with the stupendous height of the mountains, and the
bright verdure of the trees through which they flow, form a most delightful
landscape. On each side of the great chain
of mountains are ridges of lower ones which diminish as they remove from
it. On these Coffee grows in great
plenty. The Vallies or plains between
these are level beyond what is ordinary in most other Countries and the soil is
The Island is divided into three Counties vizt
Middlesex, Surrey, & Cornwall,
each County contains several Parishes. – The principal Rivers are the Rio Cobra,
and the Padra, but neither are navigable except for small Barges. The Mountains and the greater part of the Island are covered with many kinds of Trees; such as
Lignumvitae, Cedar, Mahogany &c &c always appear. In the Vallies are the sugar canes and such a
variety of Fruit Trees as to make the Country look like Paradise. But to balance this there are Alligators in
the Rivers, Guianaes and Galliwasps in the Fens
and Marshes; and Snakes and other noxious animals in the mountains. The year is distinguished into two Seasons
the wet & dry: but I am informed the rains are not so frequent as formerly,
which is supposed to be owning to the cutting down of the woods. About 9 o.Clock in the morning it is
intolerably hot, it would be impossible for a European to exist if the easterly
breeze did not set in to cool the air.
Sometimes the nights are pretty cool, and there are great dews which are
considered unwholesome especially to new comers. I am certain that the third part of this Island is not Inhabited.
The Plantations are all along the coasts. Here and there are Savannas, or large plains
where the original Natives used to grow their Corn. Hurricanes and Earthquakes in days of old
were by no means rare in the Island, but
neither has occurred from many years.
The general produce of the Island is Sugar, Rum, Molasses, Ginger,
Cotton, Indigo, Pimenta, Cocoa,
Coffee, and Logwood, and several kinds of Medicinal drugs. It has some Tobacco, but not considered good,
it is only used by the Negroes, who seem very fond of it.
Colbecks Monday 12th Jan 1824
I have a communication from Mr McInnes this morning,
informing me that he has received a letter from the Governor’s Secretary
desiring him to give in the names of the young men employed on his different
Properties for the purpose of their being enrolled to serve as Militia men, he
solicited and obtained for me a Troop in the Light Horse as they are called
here, he is Colonel of the Rgt.
Colbecks Tuesday 13th Jan 1824
I got up very early this morning and rode a long way
into the woods. I passed two very
suspicious looking Maroons they were lurking in a jungle I dont think they
observed me until I passed them. I dined
at Nelson Plantation, and returned here at 7 o.Clock PM. It was a lovely evening. The early part of the day had been dark and
showery, but in the afternoon it cheered up, and tho’ sullen clouds still hung
overhead yet there was a broad tract of golden sky in the west from which the
setting sun gleamed thro’ the dripping leaves and lit up all nature into a
melancholy smile. The beauty and variety
of colours the clouds assume at Sun Setting, no Painter could represent: the Forest I was in today contains a great variety of trees,
the Wild Cinnamon, whose bark is so useful in medicine, the Manchineel whose
fruit though uncommonly delightful to the eye contains one of the worst
poisons. The Mahogany is in great
abundance all over this Estate, the Cabbage Tree which when dry is
incorruptible and hardly yields to any kind of Tool, there are also excellent
Cedars. The Palma Tree affording fine
oil, and the Soap Tree whose berries answer the purpose of Soap, the Mangrove,
Olive Bark, Fustic and Redwood. The
Indigo Plant is very rare I have seen it; formerly it was much cultivated.
Colbecks Wednesday 14th Jan 1824
Harvest commenced this day. The Slaves are all employed cutting Canes,
they remind me of a Band of Reapers in Scotland. I am not yet sufficiently acquainted with the
Planting Business as to be able to give an account of the Process.
I was shocked to day beyond measure at the inhuman,
cruel manner Mr Spenser directed a poor old Female Slave to be punished who is
large in the Family way. The Negroes
upon the Property are very quiet, but still they have a great share of the
propensities of savage nature (Idleness & Profligacy.) There is no doubt that the Island
is at present in a very agitated state.
Superstition is marshalling its ranks, prompt for vengeance; and
sounding its Call through all the dense ranks of ignorance. Such conduct as Mr Spenser’s this morning is
enough to rouse the spirit of revenge in any people. Much has been said by Mr Wilberforce and
others in the British Senate on Slavery.
I am clearly of opinion if Emancipation were granted then that they
would become the most miserable creatures on earth. Respecting slavery in the abstract there can
not be two opinions, but to invest people with the full privileges of freedom,
before they are qualified for the experience, and enjoyment of those
privileges, is no better than turning loose a herd of wild beasts to ravage a
Country, and then devour one another. A
moral cause must be created, in order to be able to abolish the Physical cause
of labour; and a motive must be shewn which induces the English rustic to
labour, to bear upon the Negro; when the Negro peasant will work regularly like
the White peasant then he ought to be free.
I am of opinion that much manual labour might be saved in this Country
if the Plough was introduced in place of the Spade, the majority of the
Planters here are Scotchmen, and too much wedded to prejudice and old customs.
Colbecks Thursday 15th Jan 1824
The Bruising Mill having stopt in consequence of the
extreme drought, I went this day into Clarendon on a shooting excursion. I breakfasted at Fullerswood, then proceeded
on to Beaumont a Property belonging to Mr
Elliotte situated at the foot of the Blue Mountains
these mountains are prodigiously high and perfectly inaccessible. The scenery I had in view to day was
delightful; in every direction the eye wandered over richly cultivated vallies;
with streams of water running through them.
Orchards of Shaddocks and Oranges,
Negro-Huts embowered in Plantain leaves, mountains and little hills
romantically mixed, and variegated with verdant coppices of shrubs and
is situated on a Hill which Mr Elliote has named Arcadia.
Mr E. has taken it into his head that he has a Poetical vein, and
fancies his Property resembles ancient Arcadia, celebrated of old for its
Poets, and famous for its mountains. Mr
Elliote’s neighbours seem to entertain the same notion respecting the situation
of their properties, but being chiefly Scotchmen of the lower orders, none of
them that I have met seem to be overburthened with ancient historical
knowledge. They are all very much
alarmed at the revolt that has broken out amongst the Slaves, but I do not
think from what I have observed that they have any cause, however swaggering,
and impudent some of them are amongst themselves. Yet bring them into the presence of a white
person, and they hang their heads down like bulrushes, and blink their eyes
like owls in the sunshine, they are the greatest cowards I have ever seen,
particularly the Africans. They are much
more so than those born in the Country.
The African Slaves are exceedingly ugly, I have seen some of the sable Creole
Lasses whose features are very handsome, it is astonishing how fond they are of
Colbecks Friday 16th Jan 1824
At 3.o.Clock this morning we commenced again to make
Sugar, the Canes are in a wretched state greatly tainted in consequence of the
Colbecks Saturday 17th Jan 1824
Nothing particular occurred to day but the common
routine of Sugar making. I saw to day a
very extraordinary animal in the woods.
The natives call it the wild cat.
It lives in hollow trees during the day; at night it ranges about in
quest of food, and often visits the Negro’s Huts. It feeds chiefly on Fouls, Birds, and small Quadrupeds. The Slaves ascribe to it an uncommon sagacity
asserting that in order to approach fowls unsuspected, it imitates their
voice. The Island
abounds with many different kinds of Birds.
Parrots of various colours in the woods, they are very timid, the
Negroes catch them when young, and train them to speak very plain. There are large birds here of the Eagle kind
very tame, they live on Carrion, and are found to be of great benefit for the
health of the Island, all sorts of filth they pick up. Any one found shooting any of these Birds, by
the Laws of the Island are liable to a fine of
£5. – The following is a short account of the process of Sugar making. When crop time commences, every one on the Plantation is employed
man woman and child. The full grown
Slaves are divided into Three Gangs, denominated the 1st or great
gang, the 2nd or middle gang, and the 3rd or small gang,
work of the gangs are under the command of a Driver who sees that they do their
work, when the Canes are considered ripe the 1st and 2nd
gangs commence cutting; this they do with Bill Hooks. The leaves of the Cane and the tops are left
on the field for the Cattle, and it is astonishing in how short a time they get
fat on them. When the Canes are brought
into the Yard which is close to the Mill a proportion of female Slaves and boys
are employed in feeding the Mill which goes by water, the Canes are put in
between three large cylinders which bruise them, the refuse comes out below. It is carried by Children a short distance
from the Mill where it is spread out to dry, it is afterwards used for fire to
the Coppers. The Liquor is conveyed in a
wooden trough from the Mill to the Boiling House, where it is received into two
large coppers each containing 300 gallons in the Coppers the Liquor is tempered
with Lime. It is then drawn off into
smaller coppers where it is boiled, during the time of boiling it is constantly
skimmed by four Slaves. From the
scummings molasses and rum is made. After
the Sugar is considered sufficiently boiled it is thrown from the grand coppers
into Coolers where it is allowed to remain until it cools to 98° or blood heat, it is then carried to the
Curing House and put into hogsheads which are placed on Beams of wood so
arranged that the Molasses run into a Cistern.
The most difficult part of Sugar making is to know the proportion of
Lime to give the Liquor, also when the Sugar is sufficiently boiled, a
knowledge of Chymistry is indispensably necessary. The method of Tempering Sugar varies on
different Estates scarcely two overseers follow the same plan, it is
astonishing to me how many of them succeed.
I have met with many who can hardly sign their name far less have a
knowledge of Chymistry. The plan
followed by Mr Spenser who is a good Chymist is by taking a quart bottle of
liquor and ascertaining what weight of temper is required then calculating what
weight the coppers require which contain 300 Gallons. The way of ascertaining when the Sugar is
boiled is by attending to the second copper to see that the liquor clarifies,
and then to see that it grainalizes in the third copper.
Colbecks Sunday 18th Jan 1824
Mr Spenser the Overseer was dismissed to day by order
of Mr McInnes, and a Mr Simpson has been appointed in his place. I regret Mr Spenser having left us, he is an
intelligent gentleman like man. His
cruelty to the Slaves was very reprehensible, and I believe the cause of his losing
his situation. Mr Simpson is from Orkney
he is a vulgar looking fellow. A young
man of the name of Fulster an Irishman has come to be Bookeeper.
I had a long conversation to day with several Negroes
respecting their notions of religion, they seem to have no idea at all of an
hereafter, they pointed to the clouds, and told that there was a good old man
there that would be kind to them if they died not tief as they pronounce thief
it is much to be regretted that schools are not established in the Island, none
of them can either read or write. The
Drivers keep an account of the Field work by cutting strange kind of figures on
a piece of wood.
Colbecks Monday 19th Jan 1824
Mr Simpson our new Overseer commenced his career by
flogging six old Slaves under my charge.
Poor creatures they called to me to assist and protect them. I had a serious row with Simpson and
frightened him by threatening to report him to Mr McInnes. He is ashamed of his conduct and has promised
me that he will never again interfere with my people. We commenced to distil rum today.
Colbecks Tuesday 20th Jan 1824
I have been exceedingly ill the whole of this
day. The Negroes under my
superintendency have all been to see me poor creatures. They have brought me such quantities of fruit
that ten men could not consume. Lenity
and kindness has a most wonderful effect upon them.
Colbecks Wednesday 21st Jan 1824
The Fever has encreased to such a degree that I am not
able to leave my bed. My head is
dreadfully painful. The Surgeon is sent
Colbecks Sunday 1st Feb 1824
For the last eleven days I have not been able to leave
my room. The fever continued with
unabated violence until the 29th.
Dr Moore on that day gave me up, and left me in charge of four Slaves;
so certain was he of my dissolution that he ordered my Coffin, I have no
recollection of any thing that happened since the evening of the 21st
I can not describe how uncomfortable I have been since the 30th I am
so reduced by bleeding and medicine that I can not turn myself in bed. The heat overpowered me. Killing time with me at present is rather a
different matter. I have no one to speak
to, but little Sampson my black servant.
The idea that time exists only in remembrance, may serve to account for
the apparent inconsistency we use to express our sense of its passage. People often and I at present complain of the
slow passage of time. When our heads or
our hearts are busy, we know nothing of time – it does not exist for us, but as
soon as we pause to reflect on that which is gone, we seem to have lived long
because we look back through a long series of events. Time is so fleeting and so uncertain, that
even when we are reflecting upon it, it has vanished.
Colbecks Monday 2nd Feb 1824
I am greatly better to day but excessively weak. I am going when able to visit Mr McInnes at
Raza Mount for a change of air.
Raza Mount Thursday 5th Feb 1824
I arrived here to day from Colbecks. Mr McInnes is most attentive to me, I dont
feel the least fatigued after my journey.
Raza Mount Friday 6th Feb 1824
I went to day and visited several Sugar Plantations. I am now considered to have a tolerable good
knowledge of Sugar making from the interest I have got in the Island. I expect immediately to get a charge.
Raza Mount Saturday 7th Feb 1824
I have been amazed since I came here at the multitude
of Bats. They are of an enormouse
size. One of the slaves stand with a
horse-whip every evening to drive these troublesome visitors away who enter
without currency the sitting room, and flap out the lights. However they are found of use in warm
climates they are a great enemy to that most disagreeable insect the Bug, and
they destroy musquitoes, and ants and other destructive little beings in warm
Colbecks Sunday 8th Feb 1824
I returned here to day from Raza Mount. I feel a good deal fatigued, a party of Young
men dined here to day one of them a Mr Green was taken ill after Dinner and was
obliged to leave us, he has newly come to the Island.
Colbecks Monday 9th Feb 1824
This climate is treacherous beyond description, a man
may go perfectly well to bed and before morning may be in the land of
forgetfulness. The young man Mr Green
who dined with us yesterday is dead and buried. – Very few cases Dr Moore
informs me, ever came under his care, that stood the Fever so long as I did, in
almost every case if the Patient does no recover in 3 days death most commonly
takes place on the 4th or 5th . – The Indian and Guinea
Corn harvest being finished, we commence again to day to make Sugar.
Colbecks Tuesday 10th Feb 1824
I am now completely master of the process of making
Sugar. I attended the Still House to day
for the purpose of learning distillation.
If I am as fortunate in it as I have been in making Sugar I shall soon
get a situation. – No kind of European corn grows here, there is Maize or
Indian Corn, and Guinea Corn, and Pease of various kinds, but none of them
resembling ours. There are a great
variety of roots such as Yams, Plantains, Cocoa
and Sweet Potatoes. Fruit is here in
great abundance, vizt Citrons, Seville and China oranges,
common and sweet Lemons, Limes, Shadocks, Pomegrantes, Mamees, Soursops, Papas,
Pine Apples, &c &c.
Colbecks Wednesday 11th Feb 1824
I went to day into the Parish of Saint Marys for the
purpose of seeing a few families of the aboriginal Caribs. They have scarcely any intercourse with the
rest of the population and all I learned about them was, that they usually
lived to a great age. They are gradually
decreasing from a continued system of intermarrying within a very narrow
circle. On my way home this evening, I
can not describe how much I was struck with the beauty of the Fire Flies. As I gazed, the air burst into atoms of green
fire, before my face, and in an instant they were gone: I turned round and saw
all the woods upon the mountains illuminated with ten thousand flaming torches
moving in every direction, now rising now falling, vanishing here, re-appearing
there, converging to a globe, and dispersing in spangles. No man can conceive from dry description
alone, the magical beauty of these creatures so far from their effects having
been exaggerated by travellers. I can
say that I never read an account which in the least prepared me for the
reality. There are two sorts, the small fly
which flies in and out in the air; and a kind of beetle, which keeps more to
the woods, like our glow worm. – The road to Saint Marys lies across two very
high mountains, which are feathered from the clouds to the base with evergreen
foliage. The clouds within the Tropics
are infallibly attracted by the woody eminences, and contribute greatly to the
wildness of the scene; I have seen them so dense as to bury the mountains in
darkness; at other times they float transparently like a silken veil. But beautiful as these Sierras (as the
natives term the mountains) look it is woe to the man who ventures on foot to
penetrate their recesses where wood-slaves and Snakes love to dwell. The natives tell direful stories about the
poison of the first and the tenacity of the second. I never met with any person who has known an instance
of the Wood Slave fixing itself upon a human being. The Animal is a broad and flat-headed Lizard
and of a dull grey color. The Negroes
have a particular aversion to them from a notion that contact with them will
produce leprosy. – I may say with propriety that I have been in a complete Thaw
since I came within the Tropics. To day
I verily steamed from my hair, eye brows, nose and chin continuously. The big round drops coursed one another down
my cheeks, and projected themselves on my trousers in graceful precipitation,
my corporeal system seemed about to dissolve.
Colbecks Thursday 12th Feb 1824
It has rained incessantly the whole of this day. Many of the Negros who were employed in the
Fields are taken sick, they are by no means hardy or a healthy race they are
indolent by nature, as their brethren in Africa. This natural indolence is justified in their
eyes, and rendered inveterate by a climate and a soil which indispose the most
industrious to labor, if you ask them why they don’t till and cultivate their
Negroe grounds they will tell you, that the Yams and Plantains will grow
abundantly for their eating, and new Rum is very cheap at the grog-shops. – I
can not help observing that the Planters ought to pay more attention to the
clothing of their Slaves, than many of them do.
Independently of its being an almost necessary preliminary to an
improvement to the manners of a Negro, it is sometimes really cold in the
mornings, and will be more so now that the wet Season has set in, and creatures
of heat as these poor people are, they become exquisitely susceptible of a
change of temperature which an Englishman scarcely perceives. Dr Moore assures me that the Negros suffer much from cold. A Planter in my humble opinion if really
wished to do good, ought to have his Slaves properly clothed, the woman as
women in every country under the Sun, ought to be decently clothed, which I am
sorry to say is not the case in this Country.
Until you have taught a man or a woman to respect themselves it is vain
for you to attempt to teach them to respect any thing else: and observe that
the question is not with Savages of the forest who only know themselves, and to
whom ignorance of shame is as the clothing of innocence before the Fall; no
these Slaves know that they are naked; they live in immediate contact with
their masters whose manners they remark and they daily see the more favored of
their own color decked out with finical extravagance. Many of them become shameless by the dire force
of habit, but by no means all of them. I
have frequently observed the Young girls in the fields turn away from the gaze
of their sable lovers, and shroud their bosoms with crossed arms. Bad as this day has been I was obliged to
ride to Belmont. I was entertained by my friend Mr McHattie in
Capital style. The fruit we had after
dinner which consisted of Pines and Oranges
most ambrosial. I learned to day a
method of eating Guava Jelly quite new to me.
It was put into a glass, and pierced with a knife, then a glass or two
of Madeira poured upon it. The Wine lubricates the Guava, and entirely
takes away that mawkish sweetness that cloys the palate of every person but a
West Indian. – The wind was so fresh and the air so cool to day, that I might
have forgotten, but for the beauty that was around me, that I was still within
the Tropics. I saw an immense numbers of
Monkies on one of the Mountains I crossed, I am told by Mr McHattie that the
Monkies are very good livers and know a ripe Pine to a day – –
I had another run with Mr Simpson the Overseer to
day. His cruelty to the Negros would shock the most unfeeling heart. No person resident in the West
Indies however little conversant with the administration of
justice in his native country, can fail to be struck with the system prevalent
in the colonies. It is not easy to
overate the importance of an enlightened and impartial judicature in any place
but the peculiar circumstances of society in the West India Islands render its existence absolutely
indispensable. In all communities where
slavery is established, there ought to be good laws to protect the Slaves. As long as the Slave confides in the
protection of a power of his master, he will labor in tranquillity; but if he
finds that power prejudiced against him, it is nothing but an ordinary impulse
of human nature, that he should strive to obtain by violence that which he
suspects will be denied to his petition.
Some people will argue, that the Blacks being our fellow-creatures,
should enjoy all our privileges. Agreed,
in the theory, but not in the practice. – Who could behold one of them either
in the Pulpit, or on the Bench in a court of Justice every one must shudder at
the recital of the atrocities committed by the Blacks against the Whites in the
Island of St Domingo. I can not but confess that I most firmly believe,
they acted from a spirit of revenge for former ill treatment. Mr Simpson will therefore better keep in mind
Lord Cranston’s motto, Gang Warily
I was a good deal surprised to day at seeing the
manner the Negro women feed their Children.
They actually stuff Children and Turkies in the same way by placing the
victim on its back in their lap, inserting a lump of the food in the mouth, and
them pressing it down with the thumb and forefingers, the Mothers follow this
plan to excess, and there is no convincing them of the evil consequences though
it is notorious that this inordinate repletion is a common cause of death
amongst the Young in the Island. The
Mercury to day was lower than I have seen it since I came to the Island, it was 79° of Fahrenheit.
Colbecks Friday 13th Feb 1824
I rode to day into Clarendon, and visited several
Sugar Plantations, also a good many Plantain and Cocoa plantations. The plantain is one of the most
characteristic productions of the Tropics.
The tree that bears the Bread Fruit (originally brought from the Island
of Otaheite) is a curious introduction, it is about the size of the
horse-chestnut; its leaves are near a foot and a half long, in shape oblong
resembling in almost every respect those of the Fig Tree, its fruit is not
unlike the melon either in size or shape. – I am sorry to say I witnessed to
day the unchristian practice of excluding the corpses of Slaves and colored
people from the ordinary burying grounds, and of shovelling them into unconsecrated
earth in some out of the way place.
Conceive the feelings of these poor creatures, who is forced by this
detestable prejudice to deposit the bodied of their dead in a place which they
know every European considers in the highest degree ignominious, and when very
likely they have seen the Gibbet erected and the Pirate hanging. The Proprietors really ought to enclose the
ground and take care that it be respected as the solemnity of the character
demands. – – – – – In my rambles to day
I conversed with several negros on the different Plantations I passed, from
what I heard, I have formed no exalted opinion of the Methodists. The Planters profess to be apprehensive of
insurrection; nevertheless they admit Sectaries of every denomination into their
estates; the Negros are a very curious and observant race, and after they have
learnt that there is a God, the next thing they learn is, that their master
does not worship in the same manner as themselves. They believe their worship is true, and therefore
they must think their master’s false.
While they remain on the brink of civilization, this will have but
inconsiderable consequences, but the seeds are laid, & a beginning is
affected; he perceives the ingredients of distinction more clearly, and gradually
imbibes that spirit of separation which the religious schism is sure to
generate. The secrets of every family
are at their command. Parents and
Children are watches on each other; each is on his guard against all, and all
against each. In this manner these Sectaries
possess an army of dependants already lodged in every house and fixed in the
heart of every Plantation. Their dominion over these poor people is
absolute, and the negros know that this formidable power rests entirely with
their Ministers. That this power has
been abused I am certain and that it will be abused in the most fearful way I
am sure. – That the Methodists have done good amongst the Negros
I do not deny, but it is a shame to the Colonial Clergy that there was any
field for their Services.
Colbecks Saturday 14th Feb 1824
A shocking and inhuman murder was committed last night
at Old Habour, by an African man, who in a fight with one of his Country men so
dreadfully wounded his Antagonist as to cause his immediate death. A Coroner’s inquiry is now holding over the
body of the deceased which I hear is dreadfully mangled, both the men were the
property of Mr McIntosh from Inverness. – I
was informed to day that within the past Year this Island
employed Shipping to the amount of 151,850 tons the greater part British beside
Colonial craft of 4523 tons. – A circumstance of rather a Singular nature, came
to light here last night; a Negro man named James had been missing for six
days, he returned last night in the most wretched state I ever saw a human
being. It seems he had fallen in love
with a free black woman who lived fifteen miles from this;
night he used to run unknown to any one on the Estate, regardless of all
obstacle, and I believe with as much zeal and real love in his heart, as when
Caled shouted to his Moslems, Fight, Fight! Paradise, Paradise and the Arabian
youths as they spurred among the Roman spears, saw black eyed maidens leaning
from the clouds to convey their spirits to the whitest bosoms in paradise, they
scarcely experienced more ardour and enthusiasm than poor James did in going to
woo his sable dearie. The night he went last to see her, he was
informed by her Father, that he had sold her to a Planter on the north side of
On hearing this James ran into the woods with the intention of starving
himself to death, and had actually lived for the last six days without tasting
any kind of food, he is quite unconsolable.
Mr Simpson ordered him to be floged but I interceded for him, and he was
pardoned. – – – The
rains in the West Indies are by no means so moderate as with us in Scotland the
heaviest rains there are but dews, compared to the rains here; they are rather
floods of water poured from the clouds with prodigious impetuosity, the rivers
rise in a moment. Hence it is that the
rivers which have their source within the Tropics swell and overflow their
banks at certain seasons of the Year; but so mistaken was I in my ideas of the
torrid Zone, that I imagined it to be dried and scorched up with a continued
and fervent heat. – The rains make the only distinction of seasons in the West Indies. A
great quantity of sulphureous acid predominates in the air of this country,
metals of all kinds that are subject to the action of such causes, rust and
canker in a very short time: and this cause perhaps as much as the heat itself,
contribute to make the climate of the West Indies unfriendly to a European
constitution. It lightens here almost
every night and the thunder is very terrible and roars with dreadful loudness.
– Mock suns and Haloes or red circles about the moon and sun are here
common. They are very luminous and
beautifully tinged with all the various colours of the rainbow.
I have been very much pained of late by the insects
called here Giggars more properly Cirors. I could not conceive for some days
past what was the matter with my feet, particularly the soles and heels. I employed this day an old Negro man to
examine them, who with an instrument something like a sailors needle took out a
vast number of Giggers. – These insects get into any part of the body but
chiefly the legs and feet, where they breed in great numbers, and shut
themselves up in a bag. Many of the Negros are rendered quite lame by these insects they get
into their toes and eat their flesh to the bone.
The Slaves still continue very sickly in consequence
of the wet weather. It has often
astonished me their fondness for glass beads and other gewgaws however the
value we set upon a diamond is more capricious, than the value they set upon
glass. The love of ornament seems to be
an universal principle in human nature.
The pleasure which it gives among us is principally by conferring distinction
and gratifying vanity, an African is more pleased and distinguished by a button
or a glass bead than any individual among us by a diamond.
Colbecks Sunday 15th Feb 1824
I received a letter this day from my Mother informing
me that I am appointed to the 94th Regt I must pack up and be off as
fast as I can. The information contained
in my Mother’s has by no means pleased me I would prefer remaining here.
Spanish Town Monday 16th Feb 1824
I left Colbecks early this morning and after a
pleasant journey I reached this Town. My
reason for coming here was partly curiosity and partly to see The Duke of
Manchester the Governor. By the Laws of
the Island no one can leave it without
permission from the Governor.
It appears from a general history of the West India
Islands wrote by Alexander Watts Esq that Jamaica was discovered by Columbus in
1494, and that the Court of Spain granted the whole Island to him. Don Diego his son was the first Governor of
it with the title of Duke de la Vega, Spanish
Town being formerly called St Jago de
la Vega and founded by him, and which became the capital of the Island.
Colbecks Tuesday 17th Feb 1824
I returned here today with Mr Simpson. A very serious accident very nearly happened
to us. The Horse we drove in the Gig had
never been in harness before, the rain came down in torrents I was in the act
of putting up an umbrella when the animal took fright we stuck to the Gig until
the Horse fell into a Ditch and broke it to pieces. The rain & wind still continued with
unabated violence and compelled us to take shelter at a Plantation
belonging to a Mr Fraser from Inverness who entertained us in true West India style.
I ate Turtle Soup to day in perfection.
Colbecks Wednesday 18th Feb 1824
I employed myself the whole of this day in paying
farewell visits to my friends. I dined
at Fullerswood with a large party.
Colbecks Thursday 19th Feb 1824
Mr McInnes arrived here today he wishes me to be off
as soon as possible. He has engaged a
passage for me in the Kingston Brig. She
sails from Kingston
Harbour on the 25th
Inst. I have got my things arranged for
Colbecks Friday 20th Feb 1824
I drove to day in Mr McInnes Chaise to Old Harbour
we had second breakfast with Mr McIntosh, and returned here to dinner. We had a large party at Dinner of Gentlemen
from the counties of Aberdeen & Banff. The Yellow Fever is raging dreadfully amongst
the 91st Regt at Spanish
Town they have lost since
Christmas upwards of 150 men. I have got
every thing finally settled for my departure.
I leave tomorrow.
Carrington Penn Saturday 21st F
I left Colbecks at 11 o.Clock this day along with Mr
McInnes, we dined at Cherry
Garden with a Mr Smith
from Huntly, and drove on here in the evening.
I have had a bad toothache the whole day. Mr McInnes has made me a present of a fine
Blood Hound, of the real Porto Rico breed.
It is astonishing what an aversion these animals have to the
Slaves. During the Maroon War they were
used for hunting the Maroons. I remember
when I was at Raza Mount for change of air after my Fever, that Mr McInnes sent
one of the Negro boys into my room early one morning to waken me. The Dog flew at him and would positively torn
him to pieces if I had not started up and rescued him. They are by no means common in the Island. They are
ferocious and dangerous to those they are not acquainted with, but to their
masters they are exceedingly attached and faithful. One night about a week ago, I returned from Belmont rather late I was
never more surprised in my life than on entering my room to find a huge Negro
man standing in the middle of the room with a drawn cutlass in his hand, and
the Dog fixed in his leg which he had lacerated in a dreadful manner. I did not release him from the Dog’s hold,
until I loaded my Carabine, I then questioned the fellow who he was, and for
what purpose he came there, all that I got out of him was, that he had lost his
way, and seeing a light in my room he came to ask the road. I ought to have detained him but I did not. –
I am certain he came for no good intention coming armed. I found the following morning a Bow and
Arrows and a few dead birds. Every one
thought he must have been a wild Maroon.
Mr Simpson traced by the blood from his leg into a thick jungle in the
centre of the Forest. These Maroons who are nothing but run away
Negroes are a great enemy to the Slaves, they come at night from their caves
and dens in the Forest and mountains and rob
the poor Slaves of their Poultry, Yams and Plantains. They are so expert with their Bows that they
will shoot the swiftest flying Bird upon wing, they subsist entirely by
stealing and what they chance to kill in hunting.
Carrington Sunday 22nd Feb 1824
I rode this forenoon to Clifton Mr Shand’s seat and
afterwards to Spanish
Town and returned here to
Dinner. I leave this in the course of an
hour for Kingston.
I called when in Spanish
Town on Mr Shand’s Wife she has given
me jewels for her Daughters in Scotland
worth upwards of £300.
Duke Street Kingston Monday 23rd 
I arrived here late last night I waited on Major
General Sir John Kean to day but found he was on an excursion to the Blue
Mountains with the Duke of Manchester. I
afterwards went and reported myself to the Adjutant General. I have been to see the vessel she is a fine
Brig Commanded by Lt Binney of the Navy.
Mr Binney was formerly on this station as Flag Lieut to Admiral Douglas
at Port Royal.
My sea stock all arrived to day.
I shall sleep on Board tomorrow night.
The Yellow Fever is raging here at present. We take a great quantity of specie with us:
the Captain is so frightened for the Fever that he will not wait for a convoy
although Capt Leith of the Ballett Sloop of War will be ready to escort us in
four or five days.
30 Duke Street Kingston Tuesday 24th Feb 1824
I was employed the fore part of this day in making
calls. I shall go on Board immediately.
On Board The Kingston
Kingston Harbour 4 o.Clock P.M.
I came on Board about five minutes ago with Capt
Binney. I brought my trunks and Sea
stock with me, and poor faithful Nero the blood hound. My sea stock consists of 6 Pigs, 3 Sheep, 1
Goat, 18 Fowls, 6 Geese, 6 Turtles, 3 Capons, 4 Guinea Fowls, and two Hogsheads
of Guinea corn. I paid independent of my
Sea stock 40 Guineas. The only Cabin Passenger besides myself is
Lieut Col Fulton of the 92d Regt. Mr
Scott a Planter is expected; there is a young man of the name of Sharp in the
Steerage who has been a Lieut in the Columbian Service, poor creature he is in
a miserable condition, having hardly as much clothes as covers him.
Off Port Royal
On Board the Kingston
Wed 25th Feb 1824
Unmoored from the Harbour of Kingston
at 11 o.Clock A.M. and dropt anchor here at 3 P.M. The only circumstance that occurred coming
down was losing one of our Boats in the Narrows
however it is expected that the Boat will be found. The Pilot who is a brown man seems a smart
Sailor. The Captain and Col Fulton only came
on board about an hour ago.
Thursday 26th Feb 1824
The wind is fair the sails bent
Jamaica! sultry land adieu
Weighed anchor this morning at 6.0 o.Clock tacked
several times to the Southward and Northward under all sail. I can not as yet form an opinion of the Capt
or of my fellow Passenger Col Fulton.
The accommodation here is very superior indeed. I can not say now that I am on my way to
Europe that I leave Jamaica
with regret, it has its pleasures and its pains the first is ateing Guava Jelly
and Turtle Soup. The second is
perspiration and Musquitoes. I would be
very unworthy if I was not grateful for the kind polite attention I received
during my stay in the Island.
Atlantic in stormy weather the Brig Kingston is damaged, and on 21 April 1824 goes
into Kinsale, on the south coast of Ireland, for repairs. The following
day Alexander Innes leaves the Kingston and
travels by road through Ireland,
across the Irish Sea to Milford Haven, through south Wales,
and on to Bristol, Bath,
and London. He arrives in London on or shortly before 2 May 1824.
In London on 3 May 1824,
Alexander Innes writes – 'I went this day and reported myself at the Adjutant
General's Office. I was informed that
the Marquis of Huntley had obtained Leave of Absence for me to the 24th
June, the Regt. has sailed for Gibraltar. I have received orders at the expiry of my
Leave to join the Depot at Albany Barracks in the Isle of
After a trip to Scotland where he visits his mother, sisters and
brother John at Loanhead, Alexander Innes is back in London on 5 June 1824. He arrives at Newport,
Isle of Wight, Hampshire, on 24 June. There he meets his future wife Susan Thorne –
they marry on 2 December 1824 at Northwood
Church, Isle of
On 3 March 1825, Alexander
Innes and his wife sail from Cowes, Isle of
Wight, on board the Egginton Transport, and on 17 March they land at Lisbon. They sail from Lisbon
for Gibraltar on board the Egginton Transport on
26 March. The last entry in the Journal
is dated 28 March (1825), and ends – 'we expect to reach Gibraltar
early tomorrow morning'.
and his brother John were twin sons of Lieutenant Alexander Innes and Katharine
http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/sheena_charles/R_BirthsV1_p210.htm – Rathven Old Parish Register, Vol.1:
Births/Baptisms, pp 200-210, 1800-1803 – includes –
FEBRUARY 1792 [sic] Lieut. ALEXANDER
INNES late of the 42nd Regiment had by his Wife Mrs. KATHARINE DUNCAN two Sons
Twins born & baptized this day the oldest named JOHN designed after both
his Grandfathers viz. Mr. John Innes at Balveny? & Mr. John Duncan in the
Island of Jamaica
& Mr. John Wilson Cashier to Lord Findlater at Cullen. The Younger named
designed after his Father and Mr.
Alexander Duncan Surgeon in the Royal Navy. Witnesses the Revd. Mr. George
Donaldson Minr. of this Parish & Mr Walter Longmuir Surgeon at Portsoy.
[Vol.1 p.201]. [This is a duplicate of the entry on p.163 which gives a date of
the 18th of February].
Re: Hector Innes – bits and bob – Posted by Paul Pace – 30 September 2008 –
Alexander] Innes and his wife, Katherine Duncan (daughter of John Duncan Esq., of Jamaica) had eight children
(Hector, Katherine, John, Alexander, Elspet, Magdaline, Mary and George) between
1787 and 1798. After leaving the 42nd Regt., Innes became Captain of the Enzie
Volunteers (a Banff-shire volunteer unit of about 300 men which was later part
of the 2nd Battalion, Aberdeen Volunteers)) around 1796 and died at Loanhead,
near Buckie, Banffshire, on Sept. 15, 1799. He is buried at the church at
Rathven where a stone is inscribed: “This stone was erected by Katherine Duncan to the
memory of ALEXANDER INNES, Capt. of the Enzie Volunteers, her husband,
who died at Loanhead the 15 Sept. 1799, and is interred here, aged 45.”
www.familysearch.org – International Genealogical Index – Marriages –
Alexander Innes and Susanna Thorne – 2 December 1824,
Northwood, Hampshire, England
– London Gazette –
17 July 1810 – War Office, July 21, 1810 – includes –
42nd Regiment of Foot, Alexander Innes, Gent.
To be Ensign, without purchase, vice Campbell,
whose Appointment has not taken place.
26 April 1814 – Abstract Return of Killed, Wounded and
Missing of the Army under the Command of His Excellency Field Marshall the
Marquess of Wellington, K.G. in the Attack of the Enemy’s fortified position
covering Toulouse, on the 10th day of April 1814 – page 4 –42nd Regiment of Foot – wounded severely, includes
– Lieutenant Alexander Innes
13 December 1823 – 94th Regiment of Foot –
To be Lieutenants – includes – Lieutenant Alexander Innes, from half-pay 42nd
Foot. Dated 1st December
25 November 1828 – 94th Regiment of Foot –
To be Lieutenants – includes – Lieutenant Robert Henry Bunbury, from the 66th
Foot, vice Alexander Innes, who retires upon half-pay, receiving the
difference. Dated 25th
'Peninsula Roll Call' – includes –
Ens [Ensign] 42 Rt [Regiment] 10 July 1810, Lt
[Lieutenant] 15 Oct 1812
Pa [served in the Peninsula
between the following dates] Mar & Apr 1814
S.M. [Army general service medal] Toul
Also W’loo [Waterloo]
Mil. Kt. [Military Knight] Windsor 1867/75 – D [Died]
23 9 1875 – HP [Half Pay] 24 11 1828